Biometrics refers to a process in which a person is identified through his or her biological features such as fingerprints, eye cornea, face structure, etc. It is done by using biometric devices, which can be of different types based on their scanning features and abilities, such as:
i) Face Scanner:
It is designed to identify a person by scanning his or her face. It takes the face measurements of a person. For example, the distance between eyes, nose, and mouth, etc., accordingly, it confirms the identity of a person. Besides this, it is smart enough to differentiate between a person’s picture and the real person.
ii) Hand Scanner:
The hand of a person can also be used to verify his or her identity as every person has a unique pattern of veins in the palm, just like fingerprints. This device takes advantage of this feature; it identifies a person by scanning the palm of his hand. It uses infrared light to scan veins’ patterns and blood flowing in them. Palm is even more unique than fingerprints.
iii) Fingerprint Scanner:
It scans the fingerprints to identify people or for biometric authentication. This device is developed, keeping in mind the fact that no two persons in the world can have the same fingerprints. It is widely used in companies as a fingerprint attendance system to mark the attendance of employees. This type of scanners captures the pattern of valleys and ridges found on a finger and store it in the memory or database. When you press your finger on the given space, it verifies the identity by using its pattern-matching software.
iv) Retina or Iris Scanner:
It scans the retina or iris of a person’s eye to confirm the identity. This device is more secure than others as it is next to impossible to copy the retina or iris. It works by mapping the retina’s blood vessel patterns of the eye. The blood vessels of retina absorb light more easily as well as can be identified with appropriate lighting.
In this scan, a beam of low-energy infrared light falls on the retina through the scanner’s eyepiece. Then, the software captures the network of blood vessels in the retina and uses it to verify a person’s identity.
v) Voice Scanner:
It records the voice of a person and digitizes it to create a distinctive voice print or template. The voiceprints are stored in the database, and are used to verify the voice of a person to confirm his or her identity. The person is required to speak in the normal or same voice that was used to create a voice template. It is not much reliable as it can be misused using a tape recording.