Computer fundamentals faqs

How to wipe a Computer

Wiping a system means to erase the made system settings and resetting it to its default settings. In short, wiping a computer means resetting a computer system. When we reset a system, it removes all the files and applications that we included in the system and keeps all those apps and files that came with the system. It means the reset option moves the system back to its new stage. It is always good to wipe a system once a year. Alternatively, wiping a computer means to clean the dust of a computer. For it, use a soft dry cloth and clean out the dirt from the screen, keyboard, and other devices.

Need to wipe a Computer System

There are the following reasons behind the wiping of a computer:

  • It removes all the unnecessary and unwanted files from the system.
  • It frees up the memory space, increasing the system’s speed and enabling the system to work smoothly and quickly.
  • It erases all the malicious programs or software from the system.
  • It resolves the issues that hurdle when we install the updates in the system.
  • Wiping is also important when we are thinking of switching our system with a new device and wish to sell it. It is because, once reset, will remove all the sensitive and personal information from the system.

Note: If you are not facing any issue, still wipe your computer at least once in a year. It will prevent your system from any harm or malicious attacks.

Wiping Windows 10 Computer System

Windows 10 is the current version of Windows provided by Microsoft, and it is also widely used around the globe. The wiping process is just a few clicks on the system, which are discussed below:

Note: It is an advice to backup your files and folders that you want to keep back to the system. You can back up to your drive or in dropbox.

Step 1: Open the ‘Settings’ on the system by directly navigating on the search bar or go to Start> Settings.

How to wipe a Computer

Step 2: The ‘Settings’ window pane will open, and various icons will be visible, as shown in the below snapshot:

How to wipe a Computer

Step 3: Select and click on the ‘Update & Security’ icon by scrolling down. A snapshot is shown below:

How to wipe a Computer

Step 4: The ‘Update & Security’ window pane will open. Click on ‘Recovery’ appearing in the left side under the menu pane as shown in the below snapshot:

How to wipe a Computer

Step 5: The ‘Recovery’ window will be opened. Under it, Windows 10 provides four options which are:

  1. Reset this PC: It is the best approach to begin with a fresh system. It will wipe your system to its default changes.
  2. Go back to the previous version of Windows 10: It will move the current version of Windows to its previous version. However, it is even not guaranteed that things will be in your favor. So, it is also an option.
  3. Advanced Startup: It means to connect your system with an external device like USB or disc, change the Startup settings, and restore the system to its previous version.

A snapshot is shown below in which these three options are visible:

How to wipe a Computer

Step 6: Click on ‘Get Started’ under ‘Reset this PC’ option, as shown below:

How to wipe a Computer

Step 7: A blue window of ‘Reset this PC’ will open with two options. Either to Keep my files (it will restore only your personal files), or Remove everything (it will remove your personal files as well as apps and settings you made). A snapshot is shown below:

How to wipe a Computer

Step 8: Select ‘Remove everything,’ and after that, a new window will again open. It will ask ‘Do you want to clean the drives, too’ with two options. Either to ‘Just remove my files’ (it will remove all the files and settings, but it will not remove Windows) or ‘Remove files and clean the drive’ (it is secure, time-consuming, and will remove the Operating system, i.e., Windows). Select ‘Just remove my files’ option. Otherwise, choosing the alternate option will remove Windows from the computer, and you again need to reinstall it to the system.

How to wipe a Computer

Step 9: At last, ‘Ready to reset’ window will open. Finally, click on the Reset button appearing at the right bottom corner of the screen, as shown in the below snapshot:

How to wipe a Computer

Step 10: It will take some time, and finally, your system will get reset. After that, all the data and personal files will be wiped out of the system. It will look like the one you newly bought it.

Note: It is harder to recover the data once the system is reset.

Wiping Windows 8/8.1 Computer System

Step 1: Backup your files and folders which you do not want to remove. Backup files either to your drive or in the Dropbox. It is because the reset option will erase all the files and settings you made to the computer. Ignore the step if you don’t want to backup.

Step 2: Open ‘Settings’ by navigating on the search bar, as shown below:

How to wipe a Computer

Select ‘Change PC Settings’ from it. A snapshot is shown below:

How to wipe a Computer

Step 3: A window will open. Click on ‘Update & Recovery’ option. Select ‘ Recovery’ option under it as shown in the below snapshot:

How to wipe a Computer

Step 4: The ‘Recovery’ window will open with three options to choose from:

  1. Refresh your PC without affecting your files: No loss, it will just refresh the system once.
  2. Remove everything and reinstall Windows: Erase all the data and settings and reset the computer.
  3. Advanced Startup: Connect a computer with an external device and restore the system to its previous version.
How to wipe a Computer

Step 5: Under, ‘Remove everything and reinstall Windows’, click on ‘Get Started’ as shown below:

How to wipe a Computer

Step 6: A blue screen of ‘Reset your PC’ will open, telling what will happen when you reset the computer. Click on ‘Next’.

How to wipe a Computer

Step 7: Now, click on ‘Just remove my files’ from the two options. It is because if you choose the ‘Fully clean the drive’ option, it will erase all the files plus reinstall the Windows from the computer. In case you want to reinstall the Windows also, you can continue with this option.

How to wipe a Computer

Step 8: Finally, ‘Ready to reset your PC’ option will appear. Click on the ‘Reset’ button. Your system will reboot and start to reset.

How to wipe a Computer

Wiping Windows 7 Computer System

Step 1: Backup important files and folders.

Step 2: Restart your system and press F11 multiple times to open the ‘Advanced Boot Options’ menu, also known as Recovery menu.

Step 3: Select the ‘Reset’ option. It may vary according to the model. Usually, it is ‘Restore to factory settings’.

Step 4: Follow the steps and reset the system carefully.

Note: The same steps for wiping Windows 7 are followed for resetting Windows XP or Vista.

Computer fundamentals faqs

How to find computer name

Sometimes, we need to provide our system name and other details when any technical issue needs to be resolved or download any software to the computer. If a person is knowledgeable about the computer, there will be no problem. But, if someone is new to the computer and some issues arrive on the computer, it becomes difficult to detect the computer’s name. Also, for such a tiny task, the person may need someone else for help.

Here, we will learn the steps to find the computer name on the Windows OS. We will look at both quick and detailed steps through which a person can easily find the name of the computer.

Finding Windows 10 Computer Name

There are following steps through which we can find the name:

Step 1: Right-click on ‘This PC’ of your system. If you do not find ‘This PC’ on your system, search it in the search bar as shown in the below snapshot:

How to find computer name

Step 2: Click on ‘Properties’ as shown below:

How to find computer name

Step 3: The basic information about your computer will open, and you can see the ‘Computer Name’ and other information about your system. A snapshot is shown below:

How to find computer name

It is the quick process of finding the name of a computer system.

Alternate Method

It is another method to find out the name of the computer system. These steps are as follows:

Step 1: Open the ‘Control Panel’ on your system by searching on the search bar and press ‘Enter’.

Step 2: Select and click on ‘System’ from the Control Panel, as shown in the below snapshot:

How to find computer name

Step 3: The basic information page will open, as shown in the below snapshot:

How to find computer name

You can see the PC name with other details too.

Windows 8/8.1 Pro Computer Name

There are following steps to find the name of the system:

Step 1: Right-click on ‘My Computer’ on your system. If you do not find it, you can search it in the search bar. In some systems, it may be ‘This PC’.

Step 2: After making the right-click, select and click on ‘Properties’ as shown in the below snapshot:

How to find computer name

Step 3: When you do so, the basic information about the computer will open up. A snapshot is shown below:

How to find computer name

You can see the ‘Computer name’ with other related information such as Windows version, System Information, etc.

Alternate Method

It is another process to find out the name of the computer system. These steps are as follows:

Step 1: Press Windows + X keys together on the keyboard.

Step 2: Click on ‘System’ under the list that appeared after pressing Windows + X keys, as shown in the below snapshot:

How to find computer name

Step 3: The ‘System’ will open and display all the basic details of the computer, including the name and other information. A snapshot is shown below:

How to find computer name

Windows 7 Computer Name

There are the following steps to find the computer name:

Step 1: Click on the ‘Start’ button.

Step 2: Make a right-click on ‘Computer’ and then click on ‘Properties’.

Step 3: A window will open, displaying the basic details of the computer system.

Computer fundamentals faqs

How to find computer IP address

What is an IP Address

IP Address stands for Internet Protocol, and it is a part of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). An IP address is the network address of the devices that are connected to a computer system. It is a 32-bit number ranging from 0 to 255. An IP address has two versions known as IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) and IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6). IPv4 uses an IP address of 32-bits, and IPv6 uses an IP address of 128-bits. At present, IPv6 has become the standardized IP version. The main workings of an IP address are identifying host or network interface and providing host location in the network. A computer IP address is the local IP address of the system that is easy to find.

Here, we will learn to find the IP address of a system using the Windows command prompt and without using a command prompt.

Finding the computer IP address using Windows Command Prompt

There are the following steps one need to follow to know the IP Address of the system:

Step 1: Connect your system with an internet connection. It is because we need to search the Internet Protocol address of the system, and it needs an internet connection.

Step 2: Press Window+R together and type ‘cmd’ command in the ‘Run’ textbox and click OK as shown below:

How to find computer IP address

You can also search ‘cmd’ or ‘Command Prompt’ on the search bar tab, as shown below:

How to find computer IP address

Step 3: The command prompt will open, as shown below:

How to find computer IP address

Step4: In computer networking, a command ‘ipconfig’ is used for fetching all the network interface details that are configured on the computer system. Type the command on the Windows command prompt and press Enter as shown in the below snapshot:

How to find computer IP address

Step 5: You will be able to see all the information about the network interfaces or adapters that are connected to your system. The below snapshot shows the system’s IP address and let know the version addresses of IPv4 and IPv6:

How to find computer IP address

Step 6: If you want to fetch more detailed information of the network interfaces, use ‘ipconfig/all’ command in the command prompt and press enter, as shown in the below snapshot:

How to find computer IP address

Step 7: The command will fetch all the detailed information of the Windows IP Configuration. A snapshot is shown below:

How to find computer IP address

The IP address will be visible with its version number.

Note: The method of finding out the IP address of a computer system using Windows Command Prompt is similar in every version of the Windows operating system, whether it is Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, 8.1, or Windows 10.

Finding the IP address without using Windows Command Prompt

The steps to find the IP address of your system without using the Windows Command Prompt is easy but vary for different Windows versions. Let’s see the steps to find the IP address:

Windows 10

Step 1: Connect your system with internet connectivity or Ethernet connectivity.

Step 2: Open the ‘Settings’ on the system by typing ‘settings’ in the search bar or click on Start>Settings. A snapshot is shown below:

How to find computer IP address

Step 2: The settings window will open. Click on ‘Network &Internet’ option as shown in the below snapshot:

How to find computer IP address

Step 4: If your system is connected with a wireless connection (Wi-Fi) or with Ethernet (wired connection), select it from the left menu pane. Here, the system is connected with Wi-Fi, so select Wi-Fi form the left menu pane as shown below:

How to find computer IP address

The connected network device will get displayed as in the above screenshot, and it is AndroidAP. It means the computer is connected to a device named ‘AndroidAP’. Click on the device name.

Step 5: After clicking on the device name, a window page will open that will display the network details, including the Network Profile, Metered Connection, and Properties of the connected device that contain the IP addressing. You need to scroll down, and the IP address will be displayed as shown in the below snapshot:

How to find computer IP address

The IPv4 address and IPv6 address can be seen.

Windows8/8.1 Pro

Step 1: Connect your system with wired or wireless connectivity.

Step 2: Click on ‘Network Connection’ by searching on the search bar or directly open it by clicking on the ‘Internet Access’ icon present at the bottom-right corner.

Step 3: After clicking, a Network panel will open at the right side, as shown below:

How to find computer IP address

Step 4: Click on ‘View Connection Settings’ under the Panel and doing so will open a Network window as shown in the below snapshot:

How to find computer IP address

Step 5: Click on the connected device name and the device details will open up as shown below:

How to find computer IP address

So, you can check and find the IP address of the connected device form there.

Windows 7

Step 1: Connect your system either with Wi-Fi or Ethernet.

Step 2: Click on ‘Network Connection’ appearing on the taskbar. It will show the available network for connection.

Step 3: Double-click either on ‘Local Area Connection’ for Ethernet or ‘Wireless Network Connection’ for Wi-Fi connectivity.

Step 4: Click on ‘Details’, and all the details, including the IP address of the device will be displayed on the screen.

So, these are the steps or few clicks through which a user can easily search the IP address of the computer system.

Computer fundamentals faqs

How to Check Computer Specs

Computer Specifications or Specs describes the hardware specifications of a computer system. It describes the capabilities, features, and components of a computer system. It means it describes the CPU speed, RAM storage, model, and other system components. The computer specs are determined and checked usually when we have decided to purchase a new computer system or laptop, or we are a gamer. If we are already aware that what specifications are good, we will always have a fruitful deal of purchasing a new computer system.

Good Computer Specs

It is always good to keep in mind the points below when purchasing a new computer system or laptop. Especially if you are buying a PC or a laptop for the first time:

  • CPU: It is the central processing unit of a computer system known as the brain of a computer system. A CPU is responsible for processing all operations and providing instructions to the computer. A better CPU leads to a fast processing system. There are three variety systems currently available in the market, which are Intel i3 (remarked good), Intel i5 (remarked too good), and Intel i7 (remarked excellent). Intel i5 sure to provide good speed and under budget, but Intel i7 is a little expensive and suitable for designers or gamers for designing software and gaming. A system with Intel i3 is the cheapest among the three.
  • System Screen: The resolution or size of a screen can also have a good impact on our selection. A 13-inch screen of a system (either laptop or PC) is the best screen size. You can also select a high-resolution system but avoid purchasing a system whose screen size is below 13-inch.
  • RAM: Acronym for Random Access Memory. It is the computer memory that is responsible for executing the programs and applications. It is present in GigaBytes (GB). A system having 4GB or 8GB RAM is preferred for good computer specs. Although 16GB and 32GB RAM systems are also available, such huge RAM systems are required for high-end machines.
  • Storage Space: There are two options for Storage Space. It can be either Hard Disk Drive (HDD) or Solid State Drive (SSD). The use of HDD has become old that includes storing data on a disk, which is a slower process. SSD is the new storage type that stores data on a memory chip, and it is a faster process. Apart from these two storage types, if you are buying a computer for surfing, emails, and other online works, it is good to go for Cloud Storage that provides huge storage space for storing files, and it is the most secure place for your data. A good laptop specs must have at least 1TB for HDD and at least 256GB for SSD. The size of the SSD and HDD should not be less than the specified size.
  • Graphics Card: If you are a gamer or imager editor, you should particularly be aware of the Graphics card a system holds. It is because, for such purposes, you should have an additional Graphics card, which is known as Advanced Graphics Card. In case you are not addicted to games, then the provided Graphics card is enough for you.
  • Power Supply Unit: It is also an essential part of a computer system responsible for sharing power to all components of the system. If PSU is of poor quality, provide unstable power, or overheat the device, all such issues may decline the lifetime of the system. But, if PSU is good with high-quality and branded, the system will operate the system efficiently. A good computer specs must have “80+” stickers, i.e., it should waste less than 20% of the total energy output, heavyweight PSUs that include better capacitors, larger cooling fans, heatsinks, and efficient enough to provide stable power stream to all other components of the system. The Power outputs for desktop must be between 200 Watts to 1800 Watts. Also, a PSU should be either single-rail that carries a single high-powered plus 12V rail or multi-rail that distributes power to more than one with 12V rail. One more thing to keep in mind is that the PSU of the system must have hard-wired cables, so there will be no additional connection requirements.

So, these points, one should keep in mind while going to purchase a new laptop or a PC and buy as per the budget and requirement.

How to check the Computer Specs and Requirements

There are the following steps you should follow to know your computer specs. Here, we have described the steps to check the specifications for Windows 10 system:

1) Turn on the PC or laptop.

2) Make a right-click on the Start button present at the bottom left corner, as shown below:

How to Check Computer Specs

3) You will see many options from which you need to click on Device Manager or System, depending on which specs you want to see. The Device Manager will let you know about the Graphics Card, type of processor and its speed, and other specifications. The System option will let you know about RAM, OS, its version, Windows specifications, manufacturer details, and other specifications.

Below we have shown snapshots of selecting both options:

1) After clicking on Device Manager, you will be able to view the following specs:

How to Check Computer Specs

You can further click on the names of the device given under your system name for getting a detailed specification of the particular system component.

2) After clicking on the system, the following specifications will be visible:

How to Check Computer Specs

Scroll down and the entire device-related, Windows related specifications you can go through.

Similarly, you can search for the specs for other versions of Windows.

We will now discuss how to check the above-discussed points that lead to good computer specs one by one:

Checking RAM in the system

To find out the amount of RAM present in the system, open the System option as discussed above and you can view the installed RAM as well as the used RAM as shown in the below snapshot:

How to Check Computer Specs

Checking CPU Specs

To find out the type of CPU you have, follow the below steps:

1) Open the Task Manager by pressing ctrl+alt+delete together on your keyboard, or you can directly open it by searching on the search bar. A snapshot is shown below:

How to Check Computer Specs

2) Move on the Performance tab present next to Processes, as shown below:

How to Check Computer Specs

In case the Performance and other tabs are not visible, click on ‘More details’ appearing at the left bottom corner of the Task Manager screen.

3) Click on CPU present on the left panel, and the CPU section will be highlighted blue. On the screen above the moving graph, you can see what CPU you have as shown in the below snapshot:

How to Check Computer Specs

Checking GPU Specs

1) To check the Graphics Processing Unit, open the Device Manager as discussed above.

2) Now, click on Display adapters under which you can see the type of GPU your system have as shown below:

How to Check Computer Specs

3) For more detailed GPU specs, right-click on the GPU name and click on Properties as shown below:

How to Check Computer Specs

You can see the detailed specifications of the GPU from there.

Checking the Local Storage Space

To check the system’s local storage space, go to This PC, and on the screen under each drive, i.e., Local Drive C or other, you can see the used storage space on the provided space. A snapshot is shown below:

How to Check Computer Specs

Checking the System’s Motherboard and other Specs

To check the motherboard of your system and other specifications also, follow the below steps:

1) Open System Information by searching on the search bar. You will see the ‘System Summary’ panel present on the left side of the screen as shown in below snapshot:

How to Check Computer Specs

2) You can see the BaseBoard Manufacturer, BaseBoard Product, and its version. These all describe the motherboard specifications of your system, as shown below:

How to Check Computer Specs

Further, you can check out other details present under the System Summary. Also, at the bottom, a search box is present as ‘Find What’. You can also search for the particulars by typing the name and clicking on the ‘Find’ button.

Computer fundamentals faqs

How does a computer work

When a person is newly introduced to a computer system, a curiosity develops in the mind that how this machine works actually, how it understands my words, and put results as soon my eye blinks. All such questions arise when we are not having knowledge about the Computer background. Here, we will let you know all the answers to your curious mind and discuss the computer system’s working process.

What is a Computer

Initially, as a new user, one should be introduced with the machine, which is known as Computer. So, a computer is an electronic device that requires a power supply to work. Power Supply is the lifeline of a computer as water is the lifeline for a human body. A computer machine is used to process the information provided by us. It takes information or data from one end, store it to process, and finally, after completing the processing, it output the result on the other hand. The information it takes at one end is known as Computer Input, and the result that it provides after processing is known as Computer Output. The place where it stores the information is known as Computer Memory or RAM (Random Access Memory). A computer system stores information in bits. Bits is the smallest storage unit of a computer.

Major Components of a Computer

A computer system works by combining input, storage space, processing, and output. These four are the major components of a Computer.

Let’s understand one by one:

  1. Input: An input is the information that we provide to the Computer. We provide the information using the Computer’s input devices: Keyboard, mouse, microphone, and many more. For example, when we type something using a keyboard, it is known as an Input provided to the Computer.
  2. Storage Space: It is the place where our input gets stored. It is known as Computer Memory that keeps the data into it. A computer uses a hard drive for storing files and documents. It uses two types of memory, i.e., internal memory and external memory. Internal memory is known as RAM, which is volatile in nature. It stores data temporarily, i.e., when the data is ready to be processed, is loaded into RAM, and after processing, it moves data for the storage. On the other hand, external memory is used to store data permanently until you remove it or it got crashed.
  3. Processing: The processing of the input is performed by the CPU, which is the Central Processing Unit of the Computer. It is also known as the brain of a computer that is responsible for processing the data provided by the user. The speed of the computer brain is four times faster than the speed of the human brain.
  4. Output: When we type something using a keyboard, the place where we see the typed input is the Computer Monitor or Computer Screen. A computer screen allows seeing the input we provided to the Computer. Including this, there are different types of output devices of a computer, such as loudspeakers, projectors, printers, and many more.

These all play a vital role in the working of a computer system.

Hardware and Software

The input and output devices that can be physically touched are known as Hardware of the system. Such as keyboard, mouse, screen, etc. The applications that reside in the Computer and can only see them but cannot touch them are known as Software. Such as Microsoft Word, Excel, Paint, and all the installed software on the system.

How does it all make a computer to work

These major components of a computer system together enable a computer to work.

  • Operating System.
  • The system’s booting process begins that load the operating system (Windows, Linux, Mac, etc.) with all associated files. The bootstrap loader starts the booting of the system. So, in this way, Windows and its other essential services get loaded to the system.
  • As the operating system has been loaded to the Computer, the installed Hardware of the systems becomes active and able to communicate with the CPU. The communication of the hardware devices is performed via an interrupt request (IRQ). When the current task is already in execution, the interrupt controller sends the request to CPU to stop processing a new hardware request until the execution of the current task gets completed. The CPU keeps the new request on hold, and that process is stored as a memory address in the memory stack. When the current task execution is finished, the task on hold is resumed and processed.
    However, if the Computer fails in the POST test, an irregular POST is encountered. We can understand the irregular POST when we hear a beep coming from the system that notifies us that some problem has occurred.
  • When we switch on the computer system by pressing the power button, a signal reaches the power supply that converts the alternate current into the direct current, also known as DC. After that, a proper ample power is supplied to each component of the Computer.
  • With no issues, all components come in their active state, the power supply sends a signal to the motherboard and CPU via transistors. During the time, the processor removes the leftover data in the memory, and the CPU becomes ready to take over the instruction (input) and process it.
  • POST (power-on self-test) is performed on the Computer in a sequence to ensure that the major computer components exist and work properly. When the Computer passes the test, firstly, the 64-bytes memory wakes because it carries the system time and date information and all other hardware-related information installed on the system. This information starts loading and POST checks and compares this information with the system settings. If compared successfully, it loads the basic drivers (that allows communication of hardware devices with CPU and Computer to continue to boot) and interrupts handlers for the installed Hardware such as a keyboard, hard drive, mouse, and many more.
  • After that, POST checks the display adapter, and with no issues found, it loads the display that we see on the computer monitor. Next, it is checked that whether Cold boot or reboot (warm boot) is performed by looking at the memory address 0000:0472. If it is 1234h, it means it is a reboot, and the rest of the POST steps are skipped. But, if it not so, it means it is a cold boot, and the remaining POST steps are continued.
  • Now, the RAM installed on the computer system is checked.
Computer fundamentals faqs

What is Quantum Computing

What is Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing is the process of using quantum-mechanics for solving complex and massive operations quickly and efficiently. As classical computers are used for performing classical computations, similarly, a Quantum computer is used for performing Quantum computations. Quantum Computations are too complex to solve that it becomes almost impossible to solve them with classical computers. The word ‘Quantum’ is derived from the concept of Quantum Mechanics in Physics that describes the physical properties of the nature of electrons and photons. Quantum is the fundamental framework for deeply describing and understanding nature. Thus, it is the reason that quantum calculations deal with complexity. Quantum Computing is a subfield of Quantum Information Science. It describes the best way of dealing with a complicated computation. Quantum-mechanics is based on the phenomena of superposition and entanglement, which are used to perform the quantum computations.

For performing Quantum calculations, a Quantum Computer is used that is dissimilar to a classical computer. Although the concept of quantum computing came earlier, it didn’t gain much popularity then.

Superposition and Entanglement

A Quantum deals with the smallest particles found in nature, i.e., electrons and photons. These three particles are known as Quantum particles. In this, superposition defines the ability of a quantum system to be present in multiple states (one or more) at the same time.

What is Quantum Computing

For example, a time machine in which a person can be present at one or more places at the same time, or we can say something that is present up, down, here and there at the same time. It is known as superposition.

Entanglement defines a very strong correlation between the quantum particles. These particles are so strongly linked that even if we place one particle at one end of the universe and one at the other end, both of them dance instantaneously.

What is Quantum Computing

Einstein describes entanglement as ‘Spooky action at a distance’. Thus, entanglement describes the strong bond between the particles where distance does not matter.

Quantum Computer

What is Quantum Computing

A Quantum Computer is a device that is used for performing quantum calculations, which are highly complex in nature. It stores data in the form of Qubits. Qubits are also known as Quantum Bits. A Quantum Computer can simulate those problems or operations that a classical computer (that we currently use) cannot do. Even a quantum computer is capable of solving computational problems faster than a normal computer.

For example, it is easy to get the product of (500 * 187625) through a classical computer, but it is easy and quick to get the same result through a quantum computer. A classical computer will take approximately 5 seconds to get the result, whereas a quantum computer will take 0.005 seconds to get the result.

Currently, researchers are working with Quantum computers in the field of cybersecurity to break codes and encrypt electronic communications to explore better cybersecurity and protected data.

What are Quantum Bits

Quantum Bits or Qbits are the storage unit of Quantum Computers. All the information is stored in the form of qubits in a quantum computer. Quantum bits are the subatomic particles that are composed of electrons or photons. It is difficult to generate and manage Qubits, and it is a challenging task for scientists who are working in this field. These are the qubits that carry the property of superposition and entanglement. It means qubits are able to show various combinations of 1 and 0 at the same time. Thus, it is superposition. Researches make use of microwave beams or lasers for manipulating qubits. The final result of a computation immediately collapses to a quantum state of 1 or 0. It is the entanglement in which two members of a pair are present in a single quantum state. When two qubits of a pair are placed at a far distance, and if the state of one qubit changes, the state of the other will instantaneously change in a predictable manner. A connected group of quantum bits or qubits has much more power than the same binary digit number.

History of Quantum Computing

In the early 1980s, Paul Benioff(a physicist) proposed a quantum mechanical model of the Turing Machine. Since then, the concept of Quantum Computing came into existence. Later on, it was suggested that a quantum computer could simulate those things that a classical computer cannot. The suggestion was given by Richard Feynman and Yuri Manin. Peter Shor developed a quantum algorithm in 1994 for factoring the integers. The algorithm was strong enough to decrypt RSA-encrypted communications. More research is still going on in the field of Quantum Computing. On 23 October 2019, Google AI, in partnership with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), US, published a paper in which it was claimed that they had achieved Quantum Supremacy. Although some of them have disputed this claim, it is still a significant milestone in history.

Applications of Quantum Computing

There are the following applications of Quantum Computing:

  • Cybersecurity: Personal information is stored in computers in the current era of digitization. So, we need a very strong system of cybersecurity to protect data from stealing. Classical computers are good enough for cybersecurity, but the vulnerable threats and attacks weaken it. Scientists are working with quantum computers in this field. It is also found that it is possible to develop several techniques to deal with such cybersecurity threats via machine learning.
  • Cryptography is also a field of security where quantum computers are helping to develop encryption methods to deliver the packets onto the network safely. Such creation of encryption methods is known as Quantum Cryptography.
  • Weather Forecasting: Sometimes, the process of analyzing becomes too long to forecast the weather using classical computers. On the other hand, Quantum Computers have enhanced power to analyze, recognize the patterns, and forecast the weather in a short period and with better accuracy. Even quantum systems are able to predict more detailed climate models with perfect timings.
  • AI and Machine Learning: AI has become an emerging area of digitization. Many tools, apps, and features have been developed via AI and ML. As the days passing by, numerous applications are being developed. As a result, it has challenged the classical systems to match up accuracy and speed. But, Quantum computers can help to process such complex problems in less time for which a classical computer will take hundreds of years to solve those problems.
  • Drug Design and Development: Drug designing and development is a typical job to be done. It is because the development of drugs is based on trial and error method, which is expensive as well as risky tasks. It is also a challenging task for quantum computers too. It is the researcher’s hope and belief that quantum computing can become an effective way of knowing the drugs and their reactions over human beings. The day when quantum computing will successfully become capable of drug development, it will save a lot of time and money for drug industries. Also, more drug discoveries could be made with better results for the pharmaceutical industries.
  • Finance Marketing: A finance industry can survive in the market only if it provides fruitful results to its customers. Such industries need unique and effective strategies to get growth. Although in conventional computers, the technique of Monte Carlo simulations is being used, in turn, it consumes a lot of time on the computer. However, if such complex calculations are performed by a quantum system, it will improve the quality of solutions and decrease development time.
  • Computational Chemistry: The superposition and entanglement properties of a quantum computer may provide superpowers to machines for successfully mapping the molecules. As a result, it opens several opportunities in the field of pharmaceuticals research. More massive problems that a quantum computer can handle include creating room-temperature superconductor, creating ammonia-based fertilizer, creating solid-state batteries, and removing CO2 (carbon dioxide) for a better climate, etc. Quantum computing will be the most prominent in the field of computational chemistry.
  • Logistics Optimization: Conventional Computing is being used for improving data analysis and robust modeling by enabling various industries to optimize their logistics and scheduling workflows associated with their supply-chain management. Such operating models continuously perform the calculations and recalculations for finding the optimal routes of fleet operations, air traffic control, and traffic management. Some of these operations can become complex and difficult for classical computers to solve. Thus, quantum computing can become an ideal computing solution to solve such complex problems. In quantum computing, two approaches are used, which are:
    1. Quantum Annealing: It is an advanced optimization technique that can surpass the classical computers.
    2. Universal Quantum Computers: It is capable of finding solutions for all types of computational problems. But, such a type of quantum system will take time to be commercially available. Researchers are hopefully working to enhance the system,

Classical Computing Vs. Quantum Computing

The differences between classical computing and quantum computing are described in the below table:

Classical ComputingQuantum Computing
Classical Computers are used for classical computing.Quantum Computers make use of the quantum computing approach.
Data is stored in bits.Data is stored in Qubits.
It performs calculations in the form of binary digits.It performs calculations on the basis of the object’s probability.
It can only process a limited amount of data.It can process exponentially more data.
Logical operations are carried out using the physical state, i.e., usually binary.Logical operations are performed using the quantum state, i.e., qubits.
Fails to solve too complex and massive problems.Quantum Computers deals with complex and massive problems.
It has standardized programming languages such as Java, C, C++.It does not rely on any specific programming language.
Classical systems are used for daily purposes.These systems cannot be used for daily purposes as it is complex in nature, and scientists or engineers can use it.
It is built with CPU and other processors.It has a simple architecture and runs on the set of qubits.
It provides security to data but limited.It provides highly secured data and data encryption.
Low speed and more time taking systems.Improved speed and saves much time.

Future of Quantum Computing

The future of Quantum Computing seems quite enhanced and productive for world trade. The above-discussed points tell that it is the beginning of the concept and will surely become a part of our life. It is not the mainstream yet. In the future, the quantum systems will enable the industries to tackle those problems, which they always thought impossible to solve. According to reports, the market of quantum computing will grow strongly in the coming decades. Google is showing a great focus and interest in the theory of quantum computing. Recently, Google has launched a new version of TensorFlow, which is TensorFlow Quantum (TFQ). TFQ is an open-source library. It is used to prototype quantum machine learning models. When it will be developed, it will enable developers to easily create hybrid AI algorithms that will allow the integration of techniques of a quantum computer and a classical computer. The main motive of TFQ is to bring quantum computing and machine learning techniques together to evenly build and control natural as well as artificial quantum computers. Scientists are still facing some new and known challenges with quantum computing, but it will surely lead to software development in the coming years.

Computer fundamentals faqs

What is Computer Engineering

What is Computer Engineering

Computer Engineering or CE is a branch of engineering that focuses on the development of computer software and hardware. It combines several fields of computer science and electronic engineering. People who are interested in the field of computer pursue a degree in Computer Engineering. People who pursue and complete their studies in the field of computer engineering are known as ‘Computer Engineers’. There are numerous institutions worldwide that provide Computer Engineering programs and allow students to select specific areas for in-depth learning. Such institutions also provide platforms where students can show up their skills and chase their careers. In history, many persons invented and worked in the field of Computer Engineering. But they did not know exactly what they will be called. All of them were genius computer engineers at that time.

Role and Responsibilities of a Computer Engineer

After pursuing a Computer Engineering degree, the person is known as a Computer Engineer.

  • Initially, computer engineers are trained in the fields of electrical and electronic engineering, software designing, and integration of hardware and software.
  • After successful achievement and completion of the training, they are hired by different companies as per the needs and criteria of the companies.
  • The tasks assigned to them are designing individual microcontrollers, personal computers, microprocessors, supercomputers, circuit designing.
  • Computer Engineers also write software as well as firmware for embedded microcontrollers.
  • Computer Engineers also make researches like robotics research, based on the digital systems. It is basically used for controlling and monitoring the electrical components such as sensors and communications.
  • They also work to design VLSI chips, analog sensors, mixed-signal circuit boards, and designing various OS.
  • It is the responsibility of a computer engineer to ensure the integration and functionality of the computer hardware and software parts are working properly.

Why Computer Engineering

The concept of Computer engineering began since the time of forefathers, and as our generation is getting developed, so as the generation of computer engineering is emerging. Computer technology has become a part of our life that has totally changed the lives of people. We are totally dependent on technology. We cannot imagine ourselves without a smartphone or a keypad phone. It is a secure messenger for the family members when they are away from the family, as it allows them to remain in touch with everyone. The field of computer engineering and technology has employed millions of people. It has eased so many works of people with the use of the internet. All these comfort zones and things are provided by Computer Engineering only because the person who invented the computer system was also a Computer Engineer. So, students and people who are keenly interested in Computer Engineering or in any specific sub-field of Computer Engineering can develop and grow their careers in Computer Engineering. It is because as the cycle of our generation will continue, demand for computers and its engineers will also increase. The way of working may change but keep in mind that all began with a computer system, i.e., a computer system is the base of all technology.

History of Computer Engineering

The concept of Computer Engineering came into existence after the development of the world’s first electronic digital computer in 1939. It was developed by Clifford Berry and John Vincent Atanasoff by applying mathematics, physics, and electrical engineering. That’s why the digital computer was known as Atanasoff-Berry Computer or ABC, and it took five years to complete. In the 1970s, the modern personal computer emerged that included:

  • Transistors: The first working transistors by William Shockley, Walter Brattain, and John Bardeen in 1947 at Bell Laboratories.
  • Silicon surface passivation: It was performed via thermal oxidation by Mohamed Atalia in 1957 at Bell Laboratories.
  • Monolithic Integrated Circuit: It was the chip by Robert Noyce in 1959 at Fairchild Semiconductor.
  • Single-chip Microprocessor or Intel 4004: In 1971, it was given by Marcian Hoff, Federico Faggin, Stanley Mazor, Masatoshi Shima at Intel.
  • MOS Transistor: The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor or MOSFET was given by Dawon Kahng in 1959 at Bells Laboratories.

Finally, in 1971, the first computer engineering degree program was established at Case Western Reserve University, US. As a result, in 2015, in the United States, 250 ABET-accredited computer engineering programs began. The development led to the increment in the computer engineer’s job requirements for designing hardware, software, and firmware. Still, the requirements are increasing day by day.

Perks of a Computer Engineer

There are following benefits of becoming a computer engineer:

  • Demand: The demand is always increasing as technology is growing every year. So, computer engineers will always be in demand. According to BLS, the salary of a computer hardware engineer is $114,600 in a year (Bureau of Labor Statistics). Thus, the salary of a computer engineer is two and a half times the national average salary, which is quite good.
  • Competitive Analysis: The competitive analysis is determined by budgeting, planning, forecasting, as well as managing and manipulating a large amount of data. In fact, it makes possible for businesses to track their competitor’s sales and measure the marketing performance and learn ways to increase growth.
  • Creativity and Innovation: The main aim of computer engineers is to create better and more optimized versions of the already existing products. They focus on technological advancements and trends to create more innovative solutions. It can be very exciting and interesting for aspirants who are up to date always and also have good problem-solving skills.

Future of Computer Engineering

The future of computer engineers will always increase with increasing technology. According to BLS’s prediction, the employment rate for hardware engineers will grow up to 7% in the coming years. The growth rate is slower than the usual average growth rate. It is because the increasing innovations will limit the requirement of hardware engineers. On the other hand, the scope for software engineers will be up to 22% in the coming years. Such a growth rate is higher than the average growth rate. So, it is clear that the future of software engineers is much brighter than that of the hardware engineers because the demand is high for computer software engineers.

Computer fundamentals faqs

How to Clean Computer Screen

Similarly asked Questions:

  • Can I clean my Computer screen
  • How to clean computer dust on the screen
  • How to clean a laptop screen
  • How to clean and disinfect my computer monitor
  • How can I clean my computer screen with household products
  • How to clean a computer monitor
  • What are the steps to clean a touch screen computer safely

Suppose Jack is writing a lengthy code, and somehow it is showing error while compiling. He is looking for the error in the code and finds a dot in between the code. Jack, with a clever smile, thought that he found the stupid tiny error. When Jack tried to remove the dot, he was unable to remove it. He finally finds that it is a spot over the computer screen and got fooled. The error was still unknown. The moral of the story is that a computer screen also needs cleaning. Otherwise, we can fool ourselves. Nowadays, the computer system has become an essential part of our life. Our morning begins with it, and the night ends with it. But, as we use and clean our household resources, similarly, a computer system also needs to be cleaned off.

Here, we will learn and discuss the steps through which we can keep our system screen clean and dust-free. Also, we will discuss the precautions that should be kept in mind before cleaning the stains of your computer screen.

Precautions to be taken

Before starting the cleaning of the screen, one should assure the following dont’s in mind:

  1. Do not make use of any unknown liquid because somehow the hardware parts of the computer get in contact with the liquid, it will harm the parts or may lead to the hardware failures. There are certain liquids available in the market specifically for cleaning the computer screen.
  2. Avoid using Aerosol solvents, sprays, or abrasives. It may clean the screen, but it will become the Last seen of the system.
  3. Use warm water other than anything.
  4. Use a soft cloth and put some warm water on it to clean the screen. Do not directly spray water on the screen. Otherwise, it will run into the risk of pooling in the corners of the screen and impact the computer system’s sensitive parts.
  5. Don’t try to become lazy and began to use your shirt or t-shirt you are wearing to clean the screen.

Steps to Clean a Computer Screen

There are following steps through which we can easily clean our computer screen or a laptop screen by keeping the above precautions in mind:

Step 1: Switch off the Computer monitor

How to Clean Computer Screen

Turning off the monitor will help to dispatch the stains and dust easily on the screen, and also you will know what you are doing. It will make a good cleaning of the system. But, if you will clean the screen without turning it off, the fired pixels may damage the screen and give an unpleasant electrical jolt.

Step 2: Wipe the screen with a cloth

Start from the center and wipe the computer screen in a circular motion.

How to Clean Computer Screen

Case 1: If only dust is visible to you, you can easily remove it by wiping the monitor with a soft cloth and soft hands. It is recommended to use a dry microfiber cloth because it is the best choice for monitor cleaning.

Case 2: In case of hard stains or spots on the screen, use a gentle cleaning liquid. The cleaning fluid should be the one designed for the monitor purposes, or you can use warm, distilled, or filtered water for cleaning. Spray the liquid on the cloth (discussed above) and then use the cloth for wiping. Do not directly spray fluid on the screen. Also, use soft hands for cleaning because hard hands can affect the pixels of the screen.

Note: Do not use the cleaning fluid in excess, and instead of putting pressure on the screen, wipe several times that will let the spot dissolve in the liquid.

Step 3: Leave the monitor to dry

Use a soft dry cloth to wipe for the last time for removing the moisture and leave it in air. Do not switch on the screen before it gets dried to prevent any electrical damages. Also, do not use any blow driers or heating techniques for quick dry.

Note: You can also use a new sponge to wipe the screen of your laptop if you don’t have microfiber cloth. Also, you can use distilled or warm water instead of spending too much on such ultra-expensive products.

Cleaning a touch screen laptop

Touch screen laptops or computers are more sensitive than normal screen systems. Although such systems come with an additional protective screen, then also more precautions and safety measures need to be taken while cleaning a touch screen system. One can use similar methods that are described above to clean a touch screen system but more safely.

  • Soften your hands while cleaning the screen because touch screen can’t afford pressurized hands as it could affect or damage the sensors of the screen. Do not firmly press the screen.
  • Try to keep the screen clean by avoiding touching the screen with dirty hands. Always wash off your hands and clean them before using a touch screen system.
Computer fundamentals faqs

How much do computer engineers make

The question here is about the pay scale of a computer engineer. The pay scale of a person depends on his/her profile as well as skills. In today’s era, the degree of a course is less valuable as compared to the degree of skills. If you are searching for the answer, do an initial search in yourself whether you own at least 70% of the skills required for the role of a computer engineer and the salary that you expect from the MNC’s or other industries.

Here, we will discuss the different types of computer engineers one can become and their salaries. The pay scale varies as per the profile and the role of the person. Also, it is essential to know and choose your role, examine your skills, and expect your salary accordingly.

Types of Computer Engineers

As the world is moving towards digitalization, the demand for skills and talent is also rising. Unfortunately, the demand is high, and supply is too low. It is necessary to move and update yourself with the new emerging technologies if you are a computer science student. You must complete a Bachelor’s Program in Computer Engineering. There are following different types of computer engineers from which a person can choose:

  • Software Engineer: A software engineer is a person who is hired for writing, designing, developing, and testing software applications for their organizations. One should be familiar with one or more programming languages, frameworks, and basic software testing knowledge to code, design, and develop new software and applications. Also, one should have knowledge of basic software testing to test and update any existing software. Thus, all these requirements are completed in the academic courses in computer engineering.
  • Hardware Engineer: A hardware engineer is a person who is hired for developing, managing, and testing the hardware components of a computer system. The hardware engineers develop circuit boards and microprocessors for top fortune companies and the federal government. One should have the knowledge of Computer and Electronics, Engineering and Technology, Knowledge of Design, and Mathematics knowledge.
  • Computer Architecture, Processing, and Robotics: One must have the knowledge of robotics engineering that includes CADD knowledge for creating blueprints and schematics for robotics systems, manufacturing knowledge, robotics design knowledge, and advanced mathematics skills algebra and trigonometry. Also, the candidate must have the coding knowledge in Embedded C programming language. One must have certifications in robotics also.
  • Software Developers: These persons are related to the software part and applications of the computer system. The requirement is that the candidate must have excellent programming language skills, data structure, and algorithms knowledge.

Levels of Computer Engineers

There are basically three levels for a computer engineer:

  • Entry-Level Computer Engineers: It is the initial level for the candidate who joins an industry as a fresher. As they are the beginners, engineers at this level earn the minimum salary because they have just started to learn and work practically.
  • Junior-Level Computer Engineers: It is the second and most complicated level of a computer engineer. They are the majority among the three levels, which are known as the ‘middle child’ of the industry. They have under five years of experienced skills, and their salary is determined according to their work and knowledge acquired in their working years.
  • Senior-Level Computer Engineers: These group people are the most experienced ones. They become knowledgeable enough that if they think of switching the company, they will always get an attractive and high-salary package. It is because these group people are well-experienced and know how to handle and manage the components of their field. Such a level of computer engineers is paid with the highest salary packages. The entry-level and junior level engineers work under the senior level engineers to accomplish and brush up their work and skills.

Payscale of Computer Engineers

Although the salary of a computer engineer varies as per the skills and knowledge, there are distinguishing average salary ranges for each type of Computer Engineer. Here, we will see the average salary of a computer engineer on the basis of their levels.

How much do computer engineers make

Entry-Level Computer Engineers

The salary package at this level is really interesting, but you can hope such an amount if you have all the required skills and capability to solve the queries. The average salary of an entry-level engineer is $43,600 per year, which is $3600 per month. But, records say that there are too few fresher who deserve such payscale.

Junior-Level Computer Engineers

As they are the middle children of industry, their salary packages differ according to their gained knowledge and work experience. The Junior-level estimation is typical, but they make around $75000 per year and around $6500 in a month. It is also shocking because only dedicated engineers and hard-working engineers receive such packages. Also, the type of industry is a huge reason behind the salary package. If you are working in IBM, Google, or Microsoft like industries, it means you are a really talented one.

Senior-Level Computer Engineers

They are the highest-paid computer engineers because of their dedicated years in an industry and their skills. A senior computer engineer’s average salary is almost $123,000 per year or $10,400 in a month. So, you can also earn such a salary. Only the need is you should begin to begin your skills to chase a bright career.

Computer fundamentals faqs

Why is my Computer so slow

Generally, when it is a new computer system, it works very smoothly and quickly. But, it is seen that as the age of the system grows, it becomes slower, and the performance decreases. The major problem can be your system might be low on memory space, or it needs retirement. Whatever might be the reason, a slow computer always hassles the mind and make a simple job too typical.

Here, we will discuss the reasons behind the slow working of a computer system.

Why is my Computer so slow

Reasons for a slow Computer System

Technically, an operating system (either mac, Windows, etc.) is responsible for managing the different computer resources. Resources such as process, memory, drive space, etc., which are used by the programs for their execution. When we download more applications, softwares, drives full of movies or games impact the operating system and degrades the system’s performance. Thus, the performance of a computer system depends overall on the operating system. Although there can be several reasons for a slow working computer, let’s discuss and become familiar to such reasons:

  1. Low on memory (RAM): The Random Access Memory allocates space to the programs that execute in the system. As more number of program executions takes place, more memory space is occupied. Due to this, memory space becomes low and makes the system slower.
  2. Simultaneous execution of too many startup apps or programs: The development pace in the technical world has initiated numerous features in the computer systems. One such feature is the multiple executions of the programs at a time. It is beautiful, but somehow it slows down the computer speed. When we launch too many programs at the startup, it eats a large amount of memory, and CPU remains busy in their execution process, and therefore, it slows down the speed and performance of the system.
  3. Failure of hard drive: There are two reasons for hard drive failure, i.e., old hard drive and fragmented hard drive. As the system becomes older, the hard drive becomes weak, and the hard drive stops working and fails at a point of time. It is because a hard drive is built of moving parts that rotate a thousand times approximately per day. Also, a fragmented hard drive is dangerous to the system health because even after deleting some data to free up some space on the hard drive, it does exist as fragmented files.
  4. Malware or Virus Attacks: Sometimes, we allow unwanted publishers programs to get downloaded to our system. Most such programs download viruses or malware with them. Viruses are always harmful to health because, as they enter into the system, they affect all the stored files and directories of the system. In turn, it affects the system and slows down the performance of the system.
  5. Too many tabs are open on the web browser: It can also be a cause of the slow working of a computer system. When so many tabs are open altogether on the system, it takes time to process and load because every system has limited RAM, which sometimes fails to handle all webpages simultaneously.
  6. Only 5% space left in hard drive: It means that some programs and temporary files are occupying 95 % space, so the system speed becomes half of the actual speed, i.e., 50% of the actual speed.
  7. Too much Cache and Cookies in the browser: When we do any search, the browser saves the web pages in the cache memory to enhance the browsing speed, and cookies stores data on our system when we visit any website. So, both of them utilizes a large amount of memory in the drive and can result in slow computer speed.
  8. Animations and Visual Effects: The Windows operating system makes use of various animations and visual effects for specific purposes, such as for maximizing and minimizing any Windows, etc. Such animations and visual effects take up the processing power and make the computer system’s speed slow but a bit slow only.
  9. Overheated Processor: When we use the system regularly, the processor heat up typically. It is said that the surroundings of a computer system should always be clean because dust, dirt, and hair obstruct the fan’s airflow and results in an overheated processor. When the heat level reaches its extreme level, the computer system reduces its performance and speed on its own to prevent and save the system from such overheating issues.
  10. Unwanted Temporary files: When the computer system executes the programs, the hard drive stores some temporary files to it. These temporary files are unnecessary and undesirable and need to be removed from the system because such files can be the cause of slow computer speed.
  11. Falling out of Windows and Drivers Update: It is necessary to keep your system Windows as well as drivers up-to-date to their latest versions. It is because old versions can lead to the poor performance of the system. If you make them to its latest releases, they will get updated with highly improved speed and performance.
  12. Unwanted Default Applications and features: When you install or reinstall the Windows on the system, some default apps and features are also installed. So, if you find them useless, remove them from the system because they may unnecessarily occupy the memory space and can become a cause of slow computer speed.
  13. OneDrive Syncing: OneDrive is also responsible for the slow speeding and poor performing system. A computer system enables to store files (by default) either on the system itself or to the OneDrive and synchronizing the files between the two places. Although OneDrive helps fetch your files from any location via the internet, preserving files from any loss or system damage through backups, the files need synchronization, and syncing slows down the system’s speed.