2. Types, Tools and Its Algorithms

Difference between Cryptography and Cyber Security

Cyber Security :
Cybersecurity, as the name suggests, is a process or measures taken by organizations or experts to protect devices, computer networks, or data from malicious activities.  It is considered as one of the remedies to alleviate cyber crime. In simple words, it refers to keeping data secure. It also maintains safe and stable business operations even in face of cyber threats.  

Cryptography : 
Cryptography, as the name suggests, is a process that is mainly used to encrypt and decrypt data or messages that cannot be deciphered by unauthorized access. It deploys the use of scrambled or distorted symbols. It is simply used to provide extra security to ensure that only authorized users can understand the message. In simple words, it refers to the method used to protect sensitive information.  

Difference between Cybersecurity and Cryptography :

Cyber Security Cryptography  
It is a process of keeping networks, devices, programs, data secret and safe from damage or unauthorized access.  It is a process of keeping information secret and safe simply by converting it into unintelligible information and vice-versa.  
It is all about managing cyber risks in all aspects such as people, process, technology, etc.It is all about math functions and can be applied in technical solutions for increasing cybersecurity.  
Its main objective is to prevent or mitigate harm or destruction of computer networks, applications, devices, and data.Its main objective is to keep plain text secret from eaves or droppers who are trying to have access to some information about the plain text. 
It is generally used for the protection of internet-connected systems like software, hardware, and data, risk management, disaster planning, access control, policies.   It is generally used for integrity, entity authentication, data origin authentication, non-repudiation, etc.  
It protects the system against viruses, worms, unwanted programs, etc., protects the computer from being hacked, reduces computer freezing and crashes, provides privacy to users, etc. It protects authentication and data across devices, maintains integrity, provides privacy to its best, allows two parties to communicate securely, etc.  
It makes cryptography one of its subsets and uses it to design algorithms, ciphers, and security measures that usually codify and keep company and customer data protected. It is an automated mathematical tool that is used to enhance and improve cybersecurity. 
It generally involves the implementation of specific procedures to keep data safe.  It generally mitigates or reduces cyber-crime simply by using elaborate design to encrypt messages. 
2. Types, Tools and Its Algorithms

Difference between Cryptography and Cryptology

Cryptography is the study of conversion of plain text(readable format) to ciphertext(non-readable format) i.e. encryption. It is also called the study of encryption.

Cryptology, on the other hand, is the study of the conversion of plain text to ciphertext and vice versa. It is also called the study of encryption and decryption.

One major difference is that Cryptology is the parent of Cryptography.

Let’s see the other differences.

Sl no.CryptographyCryptology
1.Cryptography is the process of conversion of plain text to cipher text.Cryptology Is the process of conversion of plain text to cipher text and vice versa.
2.It is also called the study of encryptionIt is also called the study of encryption and decryption.
3.It takes place on the sender sideIt takes place on the sender and receiver side
4.In Cryptography, sender sends the message to receiver.In Cryptology, both sender and receiver send messages to each other.
5.Cryptography can be seen as the child of CryptologyCryptology can be seen as the parent of Cryptography
2. Types, Tools and Its Algorithms

Applications of Cryptography

Applications for cryptography as below.

Conventionally, cryptography was in implementation only for securing purposes. Wax seals, hand signatures and few other kinds of security methods were generally utilized to make sure of reliability and accuracy of the transmitter. And with the arrival of digital transmissions, security becomes more essential and then cryptography mechanisms began to outstrip its utilization for maintaining utmost secrecy. A few of the applications of cryptography are discussed below.

To Maintain Secrecy in Storage

Cryptography allows storing the encrypted data permitting users to stay back from the major hole of circumvention by hackers.

Reliability in Transmission

A conventional approach that allows reliability is to carry out a checksum of the communicated information and then communicate the corresponding checksum in an encrypted format. When both the checksum and encrypted data is received, the data is again checksummed and compared to the communicated checksum after the process of decryption. Thus, effective cryptographic mechanisms are more crucial to assure reliability in message transmission.

Authentication of Identity

Cryptography is strongly linked to the approach of using passwords, and innovative systems probably make use of strong cryptographic methods together with the physical methods of individuals and collective secrets offering highly reliable verification of identity.


The examples of cryptography include the following.

One of the prominent examples of cryptography encryption these days is end-to-end encryption in WhatsApp. This feature is included in WhatsApp through the asymmetry model or via public key methods. Here only the destined member knows about the actual message. Once after the installation of WhatsApp is finished, public keys are registered with the server and then messages are transmitted.

The next real-time application of cryptography is digital signatures. In the situation that when two clients are necessary to sign documents for a business transaction. But when two clients never come across each other they might not believe each other. Then encryption in the digital signatures ensures enhanced authentication and security.

As cyber-attacks are constantly progressing, security needs to be more necessary and thus cryptography methodologies also become more prominent. These cryptographic algorithms not only let down the hacking activities but shows no scope for these activities to emerge. Get the idea of what are the other tools and technologies available in cryptographic scenarios?

2. Types, Tools and Its Algorithms


The cryptography algorithms include the following.

In this IoT domain, security matters the most. Though there are many security mechanisms in practice, they do not hold the ability to come up with current day smart applications mainly for the software operating with resource-constraint equipment. In a consequence of this, cryptography algorithms came into practice ensuring enhanced security. So, few of the cryptographic algorithms are as follows:

Triple DES

Taking over from the conventional DES mechanism, triple DES was currently implemented in the security approaches. These algorithms permit hackers to ultimately gained the knowledge to overcome in an easy approach. This was the extensively implemented approach by many of the enterprises. Triple DES operates with 3 keys having 56 bits per each key. The entire key length is a maximum of bits, whereas experts would contend that 112-bits in key intensity is more probable. This algorithm handles to make a reliable hardware encryption answer for banking facilities and also for other industries.


To replace the approaches of Triple DES, Blowfish was mainly developed. This encryption algorithm split up messages into clocks having 64 bits and encrypts these clocks separately. The captivating feature that lies in Blowfish is its speed and efficacy. As this is an open algorithm for everyone, many gained the benefits of implementing this. Every scope of the IT domain ranging from software to e-commerce is making use of this algorithm as it shows extensive features for password protection. All these allow this algorithm to be most prominent in the market.


One of the public-key encryption algorithms used to encrypt information transmitted through the internet. It was a widely used algorithm in GPG and PGP methodologies. RSA is classified under symmetric type of algorithms as it performs its operation using a couple of keys. One of the keys is used for encryption and the other for decryption purposes.


This algorithm implements keys to provide security and as it comes under the symmetric method, only one key is necessary. The keys of this algorithm are with the maximum length of 256 bits. Of the most available algorithms, Twofish is mainly known by its speed and perfect to be implemented both in the hardware and software applications. Also, it is an openly accessible algorithm and has been in execution by many.

AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

This is the most trusted algorithm technique by U.S administration and many other enterprises. Even though this works efficiently in 128-bit encryption form, 192 and 256 bits are mainly used for huge encryption activities. Being so invulnerable to all hacking systems, the AES technique receives extensive applause for encrypting information in the private domain.

2. Types, Tools and Its Algorithms

Cryptography Tools

Cryptography tools are more useful in the situations of signature confirmation, code signing and to perform other cryptography activities. Here are the extensively used cryptography tools.

Security Token

This token is utilized to verify the user. A security token is supposed to be encrypted to perform a protected exchange of information. Also, it provides complete statefulness for the HTTP protocol. So, the server-side formulated token is utilized by a browser to go on with the state. In general, it is the method that moves with remote authentication.


This is the tool used to authorize the encryption process. This tool might be termed as Java cryptographic libraries. These Java libraries are included with predefined activities where those need to be imported before implementation. Although it is the Java library, it works in proportion with other frameworks and thus supports the development of multiple applications.


This is the popular tool mostly used by Microsoft to sign the files. Adding a signature and time stamp to any kind of file is the prominent feature supported by this tool. With the timestamp in the file, it holds the ability to authenticate the file. The whole feature in SignTool.exe ensures for augmented reliability of the file.


Using docker one can build huge applications. The information maintained in the docker is completely in an encrypted format. In this, cryptography has to be strictly followed to move with encryption of data. Furthermore, both files and information are encrypted thus allowing no one to access the things having no exact access key. Docker is also contemplated as cloud storage allowing users to manage the information either on a dedicated or shared server.


This is the installation file as it is in .exe-extension format. CertMgr holds good for the management of various certificates. Along with this, it even handles CRLs where those are certificate revocation lists. The objective of cryptography in certificate development is to ensure that the information that is exchanged between the parties is more protected and this tool supports to add additional bits in protection.

Authentication Using Key

Here, the encrypted information has to be decrypted through keys. The normal information is easily understood by everyone whereas the encrypted information is known only by the destined user. This tool has two kinds of encryption techniques and those are:

  • Symmetric Key Cryptography
  • Asymmetric Key Cryptography

So, cryptography tools are mostly used in every secured activity and there are many tools available where users can choose the one depending on their necessities.

2. Types, Tools and Its Algorithms

Cryptography and its Types

Cryptography is technique of securing information and communications through use of codes so that only those person for whom the information is intended can understand it and process it. Thus preventing unauthorized access to information. The prefix “crypt” means “hidden” and suffix graphy means “writing”.

In Cryptography the techniques which are use to protect information are obtained from mathematical concepts and a set of rule based calculations known as algorithms to convert messages in ways that make it hard to decode it. These algorithms are used for cryptographic key generation, digital signing, verification to protect data privacy, web browsing on internet and to protect confidential transactions such as credit card and debit card transactions.

Techniques used For Cryptography:
In today’s age of computers cryptography is often associated with the process where an ordinary plain text is converted to cipher text which is the text made such that intended receiver of the text can only decode it and hence this process is known as encryption. The process of conversion of cipher text to plain text this is known as decryption.

Features Of Cryptography are as follows:

  1. Confidentiality:
    Information can only be accessed by the person for whom it is intended and no other person except him can access it.
  2. Integrity:
    Information cannot be modified in storage or transition between sender and intended receiver without any addition to information being detected.
  3. Non-repudiation:
    The creator/sender of information cannot deny his or her intention to send information at later stage.
  4. Authentication:
    The identities of sender and receiver are confirmed. As well as destination/origin of information is confirmed.

Types Of Cryptography:
In general there are three types Of cryptography:

  1. Symmetric Key Cryptography:
    It is an encryption system where the sender and receiver of message use a single common key to encrypt and decrypt messages. Symmetric Key Systems are faster and simpler but the problem is that sender and receiver have to somehow exchange key in a secure manner. The most popular symmetric key cryptography system is Data Encryption System(DES).
  2. Hash Functions:
    There is no usage of any key in this algorithm. A hash value with fixed length is calculated as per the plain text which makes it impossible for contents of plain text to be recovered. Many operating systems use hash functions to encrypt passwords.
  3. Asymmetric Key Cryptography:
    Under this system a pair of keys is used to encrypt and decrypt information. A public key is used for encryption and a private key is used for decryption. Public key and Private Key are different. Even if the public key is known by everyone the intended receiver can only decode it because he alone knows the private key.