Velocity of sound depends on velocity and density of the medium on which it travels. It varies directly as the square root of elasticity and inversely as the square root of the density.
Neutrino is a small, tiny elementary particle which carries no electrical charge which means it is not affected by electro-magnetic forces, and travels almost the speed of light and passes through ordinary matter without making any interaction.
Dark matter is an invisible matter in the space that can hold the stars into the galaxy. They have no effect of electromagnetic force on it, which means it does absorb, reflect or emit light that makes them practically invisible.
- It moves at a constant velocity
- It has zero mass and rest energy
- When exposed (absorbed/emitted) to radiation it can be destroyed or created
- With the electron and another particle it will show particle like interaction
- It carries energy and momentum
Quantum tunnelling is the process where the particle passes through an obstruction or barrier to reach at another end. It is referred as tunnelling as the particle as “dug” out the way through the potential barrier.
When matter and light exhibits properties of both waves and particles, it is referred as Wave-Particle duality. For instance, Light can behave like wave when it shines through narrow slits while, when exposed to some metal surface it will spray electrons acting as a particle. So under different conditions it will act.
Nephelometer is the instrument used to measure the scattering of light by particles suspended in a liquid.
To measure the distance to nearby stars, astronomers use an effect called Parallax. Parallax is the apparent displacement of an object because of a change in observer’s point of view, for instance, when we look at object with one eye shut and then doing the same with other eye, there is a difference in the position of the object this is known as Parallax.
To measure the star position astronomer uses this technique. Once the star position is located after six month they will again calculate the apparent change in position.
The property of the material that relates to its ability to conduct heat is referred as Thermal Conductivity.
After Solid, liquid and gas there is one more matter that exists known as Plasma. Properties of Plasma are
- Plasma has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume
- Plasma often seen in ionized gases, and heating produces it and ionizing a gas
- Free electrical charges which are not bound to atoms or ions can cause plasma to be electrically conductive
- Some of the examples of plasma are lightning, stars, inside fluorescent lights and neon signs