3. Branches of biology

Careers in Biology

Whether you’re interested in studying animals, educating families about birth defects or designing medical devices, various branches of Biology will present themselves as areas of interest to explore. The diverse scope of Biology allows professionals to make an enormous number of scientific contributions. Below is a list of job opportunities for enthusiasts and experts in Biology:

  • Biochemists and Biophysicists
  • Bioinformatics Scientists
  • Geoscientists
  • Conservation Scientists and Foresters
  • Environmental Specialists and Scientists
  • Microbiologists
  • Biomedical Engineers
  • Biological Science Teachers
  • Genetic Counselors
  • Veterinarians
  • Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists
  • Biological Technicians
  • Chemical Technicians
  • Forensic Science Technicians
  • Medical Laboratory Technologists
3. Branches of biology

Why Study Different Branches of Biology?

Biology is a study about life and various life forms providing deep scientific knowledge of how all living and nonliving beings interact with each other in an environment. Specialization in the field of Biology will thus help you understand the concepts related to the sustainability of life, food quality, causes of illness, environment, and ecosystem, development of medicines, etc. Let us understand some of the key reasons to opt for branches of biology as a career.

  • It helps you understand the changes in human bodies, their physical appearances, and various metabolic reactions within the body.
  • From Botany and Anatomy to Biotechnology and Genetics, it provides diversity in career.
  • Large-scale problems like the existence of pollution, increasing population, growth of infections and diseases, food supply shortage, etc. can be studied and solutions can be discovered using the application of various branches of biology.
  • Creates a path for scientific investigations thus enhancing your chance of establishing a flourishing career in Research.
  • Encourages the concepts of basic living. It coaches individuals to plant trees in order to create a healthy environment. With knowledge about the temperature of the human body, you can build shelters effectively.
3. Branches of biology

Branches of Biology and Their Fathers 

Here are the different branches of Biology and their fathers:

Branches of BiologyFathers 
PaleontologyLeonardo di Vinci
ImmunologyEdward Jenner
MicrobiologyAntonie Van Leeuwenhoek
TaxonomyCarl Linnaeus
HistologyMarie François Xavier Bichat
Indian MycologyEdwin John Butler
Modern BotanyLinnaeus
Indian EcologyRamdeo Misra
Indian PhycologyParthasarthy Iyengar
BacteriologyLouis Pasteur
Plant PhysiologyStephen Hales
Botanical IllustrationsKrateuas
Mutation TheoryHugo de Vries
Modern GeneticsThomas Hunt Morgan
CytologyRobert Hooke
Modern EmbryologyKarl Ernst von Baer
3. Branches of biology

25 Branches of Biology


Anatomy is one of the main branches of biology that allows an individual to understand the structure and the parts of organisms including animals, human beings, and living organisms. Moreover, it investigates how a living body adapts and maintains balance with the physical environment and human health.


Botany is another major branch of biology to scientifically study plants, their structure, histology, physiology, genetics, and ecology. Moreover, the course covers the economic importance of various ecosystems and the impact of plants on the environment. After 12th, you can pursue BSc Botany to start a career in this field.


It is one of the most important branches of Biology that deals with categorising and naming different organisms based on their characteristics.


Zoology is one of the essential branches of Biology which is concerned with the study of animal behavior, physiology, structure, classification, and distribution. The best courses to pursue in this field are BSc followed by MSc Zoology.


Microbiology is the study of life and actions of microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, etc. Through Microbiology courses you will get to understand their metabolism and growth in a detailed way.


Mycology is the scientific study and research of fungi. Fungi are a group of multicellular organisms that cannot make their own food and play a major role in nutrient cycling in an ecosystem.


Phycology is the scientific study of algae which is known as a diverse group of aquatic living beings who have the ability to perform photosynthesis.


Parasitology is one of the branches of Biology and Medicine that works to understand parasitic organisms that live and feed on the host.


Virology is the most common branches of Biology which deals with the study of viruses and viral diseases.


Physiology is one of the lesser-known branches of Biology that studies the normal functions of various parts of the living organisms.

Theoretical Biology

Theoretical Biology or Mathematical Biology is an interdisciplinary field of scientific research with applications in medicine, biology, and biotechnology and a lucrative option when considering the branches of Biology. 

Cell Biology

Cell Biology talks about the structure and function of the cell and the study revolves around the basic concept of biology that cell is the fundamental unit of life.


Genetics is described as the study of genes, genetic variations, and principles of heredity in living organisms. You will also be introduced to the concept of molecular genetics and genetic mapping that are important when it comes to the branches of Biology.


Ecology deals with the study of the interaction of living organisms such as plants, animals including humans and microbial population with one another and their physical environment.


Evolution is the study of heritable changes and diversification in different kinds of organisms over multiple generations. 


Biochemistry is the intersection of biology and chemistry that studies various chemical and physicochemical processes that occur within the living body. This subject is best suited for students who are planning to work in medical and pharmacological fields.


Biophysics deals with the application of the laws of physics to biological occurrences or phenomena.

Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology is the discipline of biology that deals with the structure of proteins and nucleic acids and their functions.

Structural Biology

Structural Biology is the branch of biochemistry, biophysics, and microbiology that allows individuals to study the molecular structure of biological macromolecules.


Biotechnology refers to the exploitation of biological processes such as microorganism genetic manipulation for the production of hormones, antibodies, and industrially relevant products.

Plant Physiology

Plant Physiology is the sub-discipline of Botany that deals with the physiology and functioning of plants.


Immunology is one of the branches of biology and medicine concerned with immunity. Individuals learn immunology mechanisms like finer points of tissue transplantation and cancers. Also, immunology works on exploring the causes of autoimmunity responses. 

Marine Biology

Marine Biology involves the scientific study of the behavior and interactions of life forms and marine creatures with the oceans, seas, and other forms of the marine environment.


Photobiology is the scientific study of the interactions of living organisms with light including visible, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation.


Radiobiology involves the study of the action of ionizing radiation on living beings and their health effects.

3. Branches of biology

Branches of Biology from A to Z

There are mainly three branches of Biology- botany, zoology and microbiology.

  1. A
    Anatomy: Study of the structure of living things and their parts
    Astrobiology: Study of the living universe
  2. B
    Biotechnology: Study of technology related to biology
    Botany: Scientific study of plants
    Biochemistry: Study of chemical processes within or related to living organisms
    Biophysics: Study of physical processes and phenomena in living organisms
    Bionics: Study of mechanical systems that work like living things or as part of a living organism
    Bioinformatics: Study of interpreting biological information through computer science
  3. C
    Cell Biology: Study of cell structure and functions
    Chemical Biology: Study of the use of chemistry to solve biological problems
    Computational Biology: Study of using biological information to develop algorithms to comprehend biological systems
    Conservation Biology: Study of environmental conservation and biodiversity on the earth
    Chronobiology: Study of effects of time on biological events as well as internal biological rhythms and clocks
  4. D
    Developmental Biology: Study of the growth and development processes of plants and animals
  5. E
    Evolutionary Biology: Study of evolutionary processes and diversification and adaptation of life over time
    Ecology: Study of how organisms and how they interact with the environment around them
    Environmental Biology: Study of evolution, habitats and adaptations of living organisms
  6. G
    Genetics: Study of genes, genetic variation and heredity in living beings
    Geobiology: Study of how physical, chemical and biological processes influence each other in natural habitats
    Gerontology: Study of ageing, its physical, mental, social, psychological and cultural effects, etc.
  7. H
    Human Biology: Study of human species, their evolution, genetics, heredity, anatomy and other aspects
    Human Genetics: Study of the human genome and transmission of genes from one generation to another
  8. I
    Immunology: Study of the immune system in all organisms
  9. L
    Lichenology: Study of Lichens
  10. M
    Marine Biology: Study of marine organisms and marine life
    Mycology: Study of fungi
    Microbiology: Study of microorganisms, i.e. minute life-forms
    Molecular Biology: Study of chemical structures and biological processes of molecules
  11. N
    Neurobiology: Study of nervous systems and cell functions
    Nutrition Science: Study of food, its nutrients and their effects on health and diseases
  12. P
    Pathology: Study of disease or injury
    Physiology: Study of how the human body functions
    Paleobiology: Study of applied life science biology on the earth science paleontology
    Phycology: Study of algae
    Parasitology: Study of parasites, their hosts and their relationships
    Plant Physiology: Study of plant function and behaviour, in terms of their inner structures and functions
    Photobiology: Study of beneficial or bad impact of light on living organisms
  13. R
    Radiobiology: Study of ionizing radiation and its interactions with human beings
  14. S
    Structural Biology: Study of structure of biological molecules
    Soil Biology: Study of living organisms in the soil
    Systems Biology: Study of biological systems
  15. T
    Taxonomy: Study of naming, classifying, arranging, describing living organisms
  16. V
    Virology: Study of viruses as well as virus diseases
  17. Z
    Zoology: Study of plant kingdom