What are some of the challenges facing precision medicine and the Precision Medicine Initiative?

Precision medicine is a growing field. Many of the technologies that are needed to meet the goals of the Precision Medicine Initiative have only recently been developed. For example, researchers needed to standardize the collection of clinic and hospital data from more than 1 million volunteers around the country. They also needed databases to store large amounts of patient data efficiently.

The Precision Medicine Initiative also raises ethical, social, and legal issues. It is critical to protect participants’ privacy and the confidentiality of their personal and health information. Participants need to understand the risks and benefits of participating in research, which means researchers must have  a rigorous process of informed consent.

Cost is also an issue with precision medicine. The Precision Medicine Initiative itself will cost many millions of dollars in federal funding, and the ongoing initiative will require Congress to approve funding over multiple years. Technologies such as sequencing large amounts of DNA are expensive to carry out (although the cost of sequencing is decreasing). Additionally, drugs that are developed to treat conditions based on molecular or genetic variations are likely to be expensive. Reimbursement from third-party payers (such as private insurance companies) for these targeted drugs is also likely to become an issue.

If precision medicine approaches are to become part of routine healthcare, doctors and other healthcare providers will need to know more about molecular genetics and biochemistry. They will increasingly need to interpret the results of genetic tests, understand how that information is relevant to treatment or prevention approaches, and convey this knowledge to patients.


What are some potential benefits of precision medicine and the Precision Medicine Initiative?

Precision medicine holds promise for improving many aspects of health and healthcare. Some of these benefits will be apparent soon, as the All of Us Research Program continues and new tools and approaches for managing data are developed. Other benefits will result from long-term research in precision medicine and may not be realized for years.

Potential benefits of the Precision Medicine Initiative:

  • New approaches for protecting research participants, particularly patients’ privacy and the confidentiality of their data.
  • Design of new tools for building, analyzing, and sharing large sets of medical data.
  • Improvement of FDA oversight of tests, drugs, and other technologies to support innovation while ensuring that these products are safe and effective.
  • New partnerships of scientists in a wide range of specialties, as well as people from the patient advocacy community, universities, pharmaceutical companies, and others.
  • Opportunity for a million people to contribute to the advancement of scientific research.

Potential long-term benefits of research in precision medicine:

  • Wider ability of doctors to use patients’ genetic and other molecular information as part of routine medical care.
  • Improved ability to predict which treatments will work best for specific patients.
  • Better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which various diseases occur.
  • Improved approaches to preventing, diagnosing, and treating a wide range of diseases.
  • Better integration of electronic health records (EHRs) in patient care, which will allow doctors and researchers to access medical data more easily.

What is the Precision Medicine Initiative?

The Precision Medicine Initiative is a long-term research endeavor, involving the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and multiple other research centers, which aims to understand how a person’s genetics, environment, and lifestyle can help determine the best approach to prevent or treat disease.

The Precision Medicine Initiative has both short-term and long-term goals. The short-term goals involve expanding precision medicine in the area of cancer research. Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) hope to use an increased knowledge of the genetics and biology of cancer to find new, more effective treatments for various forms of this disease. The long-term goals of the Precision Medicine Initiative focus on bringing precision medicine to all areas of health and healthcare on a large scale. To this end, the NIH has launched a study, known as the All of Us Research Program, which involves a group (cohort) of at least 1 million volunteers from around the United States. Participants are providing genetic data, biological samples, and other information about their health. To encourage open data sharing, participants can access their health information, as well as research that uses their data, during the study. Researchers can use these data to study a large range of diseases, with the goals of better predicting disease risk, understanding how diseases occur, and finding improved diagnosis and treatment strategies.


What is the difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine? What about pharmacogenomics?

There is a lot of overlap between the terms “precision medicine” and “personalized medicine.” According to the National Research Council, “personalized medicine” is an older term with a meaning similar to “precision medicine.” However, there was concern that the word “personalized” could be misinterpreted to imply that treatments and preventions are being developed uniquely for each individual; in precision medicine, the focus is on identifying which approaches will be effective for which patients based on genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The Council therefore preferred the term “precision medicine” to “personalized medicine.” However, some people still use the two terms interchangeably.

Pharmacogenomics is a part of precision medicine. Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes affect a person’s response to particular drugs. This relatively new field combines pharmacology (the science of drugs) and genomics (the study of genes and their functions) to develop effective, safe medications and doses that are tailored to variations in a person’s genes.


What is precision medicine?

According to the Precision Medicine Initiative, precision medicine is “an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person.” This approach will allow doctors and researchers to predict more accurately which treatment and prevention strategies for a particular disease will work in which groups of people. It is in contrast to a one-size-fits-all approach, in which disease treatment and prevention strategies are developed for the average person, with less consideration for the differences between individuals.

Although the term “precision medicine” is relatively new, the concept has been a part of healthcare for many years. For example, a person who needs a blood transfusion is not given blood from a randomly selected donor; instead, the donor’s blood type is matched to the recipient to reduce the risk of complications. Although examples can be found in several areas of medicine, the role of precision medicine in day-to-day healthcare is relatively limited. Researchers hope that this approach will expand to many areas of health and healthcare in coming years.


सब्जी सलाद पकाने की विधि



  • 1/3कप कटा हुआ प्याज या शल्क (वसंत प्याज)
  • ½ कप कटे हुए टमाटर – 0.5 सेमी क्यूब में कटे हुए
  • ½ कप कटी हुई लाल शिमला मिर्च या किसी भी रंग की शिमला मिर्च, 0.5 सेमी क्यूब में कटी हुई
  • ½ कप कटा हुआ खीरा – नियमित या अंग्रेजी खीरा, 0.5 सेमी क्यूब्स में कटा हुआ
  • ⅓ कप कद्दूकस की हुई गाजर – वैकल्पिक
  • 1 एवोकैडो – मध्यम से बड़ा
  • 3 बड़े चम्मच कटी हुई अजवाइन

दाने और बीज:

  • 1 बड़ा चम्मच काजू – साबुत, कटे हुए
  • 1 बड़ा चम्मच पिस्ता – बिना नमक वाला और छिलका, कटा हुआ
  • 2 से 3 अखरोट – कटे हुए
  • 1 बड़ा चम्मच बादाम – कटा हुआ, वैकल्पिक
  • 1 बड़ा चम्मच कद्दू के बीज
  • 1 बड़ा चम्मच सूरजमुखी के बीज
  • 2 चम्मच तिल – सफ़ेद
  • 2 बड़े चम्मच सुनहरी किशमिश

लेमन विनिगेट ड्रेसिंग के लिए:

  • 2 बड़े चम्मच अतिरिक्त कुंवारी जैतून का तेल
  • 1 बड़ा चम्मच नींबू का रस
  • ¼ छोटा चम्मच कीमा बनाया हुआ लहसुन
  • 1/4छोटा चम्मच पिसी हुई सफेद मिर्च या पिसी हुई काली मिर्च
  • छोटा चम्मच सूखा अजवायन
  • छोटा चम्मच सूखी तुलसी या 3 से 4 ताजी तुलसी के पत्ते, फटे
  • ½ छोटा चम्मच नमक या आवश्यकतानुसार डालें
  • ½ छोटा चम्मच कच्ची चीनी या सफेद चीनी या ब्राउन शुगर

अन्य अवयव:

  • 1/4 कप क्रम्बल किया हुआ फेटा – 25 ग्राम
  • 2 बड़े चम्मच कटा हुआ अजमोद – सपाट या घुंघराला

गार्निश के लिए:

  • 1 बड़ा चम्मच क्रम्बल किया हुआ फेटा
  • 1 बड़ा चम्मच कटा हुआ अजमोद


  1. सबसे पहले एक छोटा फ्राइंग पैन या कड़ाही गरम करें। किशमिश को छोड़कर कटे हुए मेवे और बीज डालें।
  2. उन्हें धीमी आंच पर लगातार चलाते हुए कुरकुरा और हल्का सुनहरा होने तक भूनें। सुनिश्चित करें कि उन्हें जलाना नहीं है। पैन को अलग रख दें।
  3. एक छोटे कटोरे में, “नींबू विनिगेट ड्रेसिंग के लिए” के तहत सूचीबद्ध सभी सामग्रियों को 2 से 3 मिनट के लिए तेज गति से फेंटें, जब तक कि स्थिरता थोड़ी गाढ़ी न हो जाए।
  4. सभी सब्जियों को धो लें। खीरा और प्याज को छीलकर काट लें। टमाटर, लाल शिमला मिर्च, सेलेरी को काट लें। अगर गाजर का इस्तेमाल कर रहे हैं तो एक छोटी गाजर को कद्दूकस कर लें। सब्जियों को एक तरफ रख दें।
  5. एक बाउल में सारी कटी हुई सब्जियां और अजवाइन लें।
  6. एक एवोकैडो को दो हिस्सों में काट लें। दोनों हिस्सों से गूदा निकालकर काट लें। मिक्स सब्जियों को बाउल में डालें।
  7. तैयार नींबू की ड्रेसिंग को भी प्याले में निकाल लीजिए.
  8. भुने हुए/भुने हुए मेवे, बीज और कटा हुआ अजमोद डालें।
  9. इसके बाद क्रम्बल किया हुआ फेटा डालें।
  10. टॉस करें और अच्छी तरह मिलाएँ ताकि सब्ज़ियाँ ड्रेसिंग के साथ समान रूप से लेपित हो जाएँ।
  11. सब्जी का सलाद तुरंत परोसें। परोसते समय फेटा और कटे हुए पार्सले से गार्निश करें।

Step 1: Sterilization

Before touching the foot with the glass splinter, you should wash your hands with soap and warm water. Then, wash the foot with warm soapy water. You can use a clean cloth or paper towel for that part.

Next, make sure your tweezers and needle are clean. To do so, bring a small amount of water to a boil, then dip the ends of the tweezers and needle into the boiling water. Then, wipe them off with an alcohol pad (like the ones found in a first aid kit) or a cotton ball. The main thing to keep in mind is not introducing an infection into the broken skin from dirty tools. Keep them clean!


Removing Glass From Your Foot

While getting glass in your foot can feel alarming, getting it out doesn’t need to be.

Just as easy as it is to accidentally step on glass and end up with some in your foot, pulling the glass out can be done quickly and safely at home with a few simple tools:

  • Soap and water
  • Tweezers
  • Needle (such as a sewing needle)

It is best to take the glass splinter out as soon as you notice it to make infection less likely and the removal process easier. Follow the first aid steps to help yourself or someone else who has glass stuck in the foot.


Getting out Glass from Foot in just 4 Steps

Splinters are things that get stuck under the skin. Like a wooden splinter that you can get from touching a rough piece of wood, a glass splinter is a thin, sharp piece of glass that breaks the skin’s surface. The glass piece will look like a sliver of glass, having broken off a larger chunk of glass. 

Glass pieces can be hard to see, so it’s not uncommon to get a glass splinter in areas where broken glass might be present. Common causes of getting glass stuck in your foot are being barefoot while cleaning up a broken glass object in the home or stepping on broken glass—such as from a broken glass bottle—while walking outside without shoes.


When to See a Healthcare Provider

Sometimes a puncture wound caused by a nail needs medical attention right away. If any of the following are true, call your healthcare provider immediately:

  • The puncture wound is large or deep, even if it’s not bleeding a lot.
  • The nail that caused the puncture wound is rusty.
  • The nail is stuck in your foot (do not remove it yourself).
  • The wound looks infected, such as warmth and redness, swelling, a red streak, or pus in the area.
  • You haven’t had a tetanus shot or booster in the last 10 years.
  • You are immunocompromised.

If either of the following applies, call 911:

  • You have lost feeling in the injured foot.
  • The bleeding is severe and won’t stop (for example, if it’s still bleeding after applying pressure for 10 minutes).