Adult organisms are composed of a number of distinct cell types. Cells are organized into tissues, each of which typically contains a small number of cell types and is devoted to a specific physiological function. For example, the epithelial tissue lining the small intestine contains columnar absorptive cells, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-secreting endocrine cells, and enzyme-secreting Paneth cells. In addition, there exist undifferentiated dividing cells that lie in the crypts between the intestinal villi and serve to replace the other cell types when they become damaged or worn out. Another example of a differentiated tissue is the skeletal tissue of a long bone, which contains osteoblasts (large cells that synthesize bone) in the outer sheath and osteocytes (mature bone cells) and osteoclasts (multinucleate cells involved in bone remodeling) within the matrix.
In general, the simpler the overall organization of the animal, the fewer the number of distinct cell types that they possess. Mammals contain more than 200 different cell types, whereas simple invertebrate animals may have only a few different types. Plants are also made up of differentiated cells, but they are quite different from the cells of animals. For example, a leaf in a higher plant is covered with a cuticle layer of epidermal cells. Among these are pores composed of two specialized cells, which regulate gaseous exchange across the epidermis. Within the leaf is the mesophyll, a spongy tissue responsible for photosynthetic activity. There are also veins composed of xylem elements, which transport water up from the soil, and phloem elements, which transport products of photosynthesis to the storage organs.
leaf structure Structures of a leaf. The epidermis is often covered with a waxy protective cuticle that helps prevent water loss from inside the leaf. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water enter and exit the leaf through pores (stomata) scattered mostly along the lower epidermis. The stomata are opened and closed by the contraction and expansion of surrounding guard cells. The vascular, or conducting, tissues are known as xylem and phloem; water and minerals travel up to the leaves from the roots through the xylem, and sugars made by photosynthesis are transported to other parts of the plant through the phloem. Photosynthesis occurs within the chloroplast-containing mesophyll layer.© Merriam-Webster Inc.
The various cell types have traditionally been recognized and classified according to their appearance in the light microscope following the process of fixing, processing, sectioning, and staining tissues that is known as histology. Classical histology has been augmented by a variety of more discriminating techniques. Electron microscopy allows for higher magnifications. Histochemistry involves the use of coloured precipitating substrates to stain particular enzymes in situ. Immunohistochemistry uses specific antibodies to identify particular substances, usually proteins or carbohydrates, within cells. In situ hybridization involves the use of nucleic acid probes to visualize the location of specific messenger RNAs (mRNA). These modern methods have allowed the identification of more cell types than could be visualized by classical histology, particularly in the brain, the immune system, and among the hormone-secreting cells of the endocrine system.