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# Conclusions

In thermodynamics, heat and temperature are closely related concepts with precise definitions.

• Heat, \text qqstart text, q, end text, is thermal energy transferred from a hotter system to a cooler system that are in contact.
• Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in the system.
• The zeroth law of thermodynamics says that no heat is transferred between two objects in thermal equilibrium; therefore, they are the same temperature.
• Heat, \text qqstart text, q, end text, is thermal energy transferred from a hotter system to a cooler system that are in contact.
• Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in the system.
• The zeroth law of thermodynamics says that no heat is transferred between two objects in thermal equilibrium; therefore, they are the same temperature.
• Heat,  q, is thermal energy transferred from a hotter system to a cooler system that are in contact.
• Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in the system.
• The zeroth law of thermodynamics says that no heat is transferred between two objects in thermal equilibrium; therefore, they are the same temperature.
• We can calculate the heat released or absorbed using the specific heat capacity C the mass of the substance \text mmstart text, m, end text, and the change in temperature ΔT in the following equation:
• q = m × C × ΔT