2. Ethereum virtual machine

Costs of interacting with smart contracts

Since all contract executions are run by everyone running an Ethereum node, an attacker could try creating contracts including lots of computationally expensive operations to slow down the network. To prevent such attacks from happening, every opcode has its own base gas cost. Furthermore, several complicated opcodes also charge a dynamic gas cost. For instance, the opcode KECCAK256 (formerly known as SHA3) has a base cost of 30 gas, and a dynamic cost of 6 gas per word (words are 256-bit items). Computationally expensive instructions charge a higher gas fee than simple, straightforward instructions. On top of that, every transaction starts at 21000 gas.

When executing instructions which reduce state size, gas can also be refunded. Setting a storage value to zero from non-zero refunds 15000 gas, while completely removing a contract (using the SELFDESTRUCT opcode) refunds 24000 gas. Refunds only occur after contract execution has completed, thus contracts cannot pay for themselves. Additionally, a refund cannot exceed half the gas used for the current contract call.

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