1. Cell Structure


The cellular skeleton is a collection of protein filaments within the cytoplasm. Microtubules are key organelles in cell division, they form the basis for cilia and flagella. Plant cells do not have cilia, which are short projections from the cell that function in movement, but the sperm cells of early diverging plants, like bryophytes and seedless vascular plants, have flagella.

These are long projections that function in movement. Microtubules are also are guides for the construction of the cell wall, and cellulose fibers are parallel due to the microtubules. The movement in microtubules is based on tubulin-kinesin interactions. In contrast, the movement of microfilaments is based on actin-myosin interactions. Microfilaments guide the movement of organelles within the cell.

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