Ecchymosis is caused by the movement of blood from ruptured blood vessels into the top layer of the skin. This can occur following trauma to soft tissue, surgery, disordered cell function, or infection. Ecchymosis can occur anywhere there is skin, or in a mucous membrane, including the mouth. Ecchymosis does not cause any raising of the skin. Rather, you see a range of discoloration including red, blue, or purple. Ecchymosis may be associated with other symptoms such as pain or swelling.