Amino acid-based enzymes are globular proteins that range in size from less than 100 to more than 2 000 amino acid residues. These amino acids can be arranged as one or more polypeptide chains that are folded and bent to form a specific three-dimensional structure, incorporating a small area known as the active site (Figure 1), where the substrate actually binds. The active site may well involve only a small number (less than 10) of the constituent amino acids.Figure 1.Representation of substrate binding to the active site of an enzyme molecule.
It is the shape and charge properties of the active site that enable it to bind to a single type of substrate molecule, so that the enzyme is able to demonstrate considerable specificity in its catalytic activity.
The hypothesis that enzyme specificity results from the complementary nature of the substrate and its active site was first proposed by the German chemist Emil Fischer in 1894, and became known as Fischer’s ‘lock and key hypothesis’, whereby only a key of the correct size and shape (the substrate) fits into the keyhole (the active site) of the lock (the enzyme). It is astounding that this theory was proposed at a time when it was not even established that enzymes were proteins. As more was learned about enzyme structure through techniques such as X-ray crystallography, it became clear that enzymes are not rigid structures, but are in fact quite flexible in shape. In the light of this finding, in 1958 Daniel Koshland extended Fischer’s ideas and presented the ‘induced-fit model’ of substrate and enzyme binding, in which the enzyme molecule changes its shape slightly to accommodate the binding of the substrate. The analogy that is commonly used is the ‘hand-in-glove model’, where the hand and glove are broadly complementary in shape, but the glove is moulded around the hand as it is inserted in order to provide a perfect match.
Since it is the active site alone that binds to the substrate, it is logical to ask what is the role of the rest of the protein molecule. The simple answer is that it acts to stabilize the active site and provide an appropriate environment for interaction of the site with the substrate molecule. Therefore the active site cannot be separated out from the rest of the protein without loss of catalytic activity, although laboratory-based directed (or forced) evolution studies have shown that it is sometimes possible to generate smaller enzymes that do retain activity.
It should be noted that although a large number of enzymes consist solely of protein, many also contain a non-protein component, known as a cofactor, that is necessary for the enzyme’s catalytic activity. A cofactor may be another organic molecule, in which case it is called a coenzyme, or it may be an inorganic molecule, typically a metal ion such as iron, manganese, cobalt, copper or zinc. A coenzyme that binds tightly and permanently to the protein is generally referred to as the prosthetic group of the enzyme.
When an enzyme requires a cofactor for its activity, the inactive protein component is generally referred to as an apoenzyme, and the apoenzyme plus the cofactor (i.e. the active enzyme) is called a holoenzyme (Figure 2).Figure 2.The components of a holoenzyme.
The need for minerals and vitamins in the human diet is partly attributable to their roles within metabolism as cofactors and coenzymes.