3. Chemical Bonding

Important Theories on Chemical Bonding

Albrecht Kössel and Gilbert Lewis were the first to explain the formation of chemical bonds successfully in the year 1916. They explained chemical bonding on the basis of the inertness of noble gases.

Lewis Theory of Chemical Bonding

  • An atom can be viewed as a positively charged ‘Kernel’ (the nucleus plus the inner electrons) and the outer shell.
  • The outer shell can accommodate a maximum of eight electrons only.
  • The eight electrons present in the outer shell occupy the corners of a cube which surround the ‘Kernel’.
  • The atoms having octet configuration, i.e. 8 electrons in the outermost shell, thus symbolize a stable configuration.
  • Atoms can achieve this stable configuration by forming chemical bonds with other atoms. This chemical bond can be formed either by gaining or losing an electron(s) (NaCl, MgCl2) or in some cases due to the sharing of an electron (F2).
  • Only the electrons present in the outer shell, also known as the valence electrons take part in the formation of chemical bonds. Gilbert Lewis used specific notations better known as Lewis symbols to represent these valence electrons.
  • Generally, the valency of an element is either equal to the number of dots in the corresponding Lewis symbol or 8 minus the number of dots (or valence electrons).

Lewis symbols for lithium (1 electron), oxygen (6 electrons), neon (8 electrons) are given below:

Kossel’s theory of Chemical Bonding

  • Noble gases separate the highly electronegative halogens and the highly electropositive alkali metals.
  • Halogens can form negatively charged ions by gaining an electron. Whereas alkali metals can form positively charged ions by losing an electron.
  • These negatively charged ions and positively charged ions have a noble gas configuration that is 8 electrons in the outermost shell. The general electronic configuration of noble gases (except helium) is given by ns2np6.
  • As unlike charges attract each other these unlike charged particles are held together by a strong force of electrostatic attraction existing between them. For example, MgCl2, the magnesium ion, and chlorine ions are held together by force of electrostatic attraction. This kind of chemical bonding existing between two unlike charged particles is known as an electrovalent bond.

Explanation of Kossel Lewis Approach

In 1916 Kossel and Lewis succeeded in giving a successful explanation based upon the concept of an electronic configuration of noble gases about why atoms combine to form molecules. Atoms of noble gases have little or no tendency to combine with each other or with atoms of other elements. This means that these atoms must be having stable electronic configurations.

Due to the stable configuration, the noble gas atoms neither have any tendency to gain or lose electrons and, therefore, their combining capacity or valency is zero. They are so inert that they even do not form diatomic molecules and exist as monoatomic gaseous atoms.

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