A specialized division of chromosomes called meiosis occurs during the formation of the reproductive cells, or gametes, of sexually reproducing organisms. Gametes such as ova, sperm, and pollen begin as germ cells, which, like other types of cells, have two copies of each gene in their nuclei. The chromosomes composed of these matching genes are called homologs. During DNA replication, each chromosome duplicates into two attached chromatids. The homologous chromosomes are then separated to opposite poles of the meiotic spindle by microtubules similar to those of the mitotic spindle. At this stage in the meiosis of germ cells, there is a crucial difference from the mitosis of other cells. In meiosis the two chromatids making up each chromosome remain together, so that whole chromosomes are separated from their homologous partners. Cell division then occurs, followed by a second division that resembles mitosis more closely in that it separates the two chromatids of each remaining chromosome. In this way, when meiosis is complete, each mature gamete receives only one copy of each gene instead of the two copies present in other cells.