2. Skeleton and muscular system

Muscular system

The muscular system is an organ system composed of specialized contractile tissue called the muscle tissue. There are three types of muscle tissue, based on which all the muscles are classified into three groups: 

  • Cardiac muscle, which forms the muscular layer of the heart (myocardium) 
  • Smooth muscle, which comprises the walls of blood vessels and hollow organs 
  • Skeletal muscle, which attaches to the bones and provides voluntary movement. 

Based on their histological appearance, these types are classified into striated and non-striated muscles; with the skeletal and cardiac muscles being grouped as striated, while the smooth muscle is non-striated. The skeletal muscles are the only ones that we can control by the power of our will, as they are innervated by the somatic part of the nervous system. In contrast to this, the cardiac and smooth muscles are innervated by the autonomic nervous system, thus being controlled involuntarily by the autonomic centers in our brain.

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