1. Cell Structure


Eukaryotic cells frequently have smaller vesicles including peroxisomes which, among other functions, help in photosynthesis in plant cells. In addition, many plant cells accumulate lipids as oil drops located directly in cytoplasm. Peroxisomes are small, round organelles enclosed by single membranes.

They carry out oxidation reactions that break down fatty acids and amino acids. They also detoxify many poisons that may enter the body. (Many of these oxidation reactions release hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, which would be damaging to cells; however, when these reactions are confined to peroxisomes, enzymes safely break down the H2O2 into oxygen and water.) For example, alcohol is detoxified by peroxisomes in liver cells. Glyoxysomes, which are specialized peroxisomes in plants, are responsible for converting stored fats into sugars.

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