4. Circulatory and Respiratory system

Respiratory system

The respiratory system, also called the pulmonary system, consists of several organs that function as a whole to oxygenate the body through the process of respiration (breathing). This process involves inhaling air and conducting it to the lungs where gas exchange occurs, in which oxygen is extracted from the air, and carbon dioxide expelled from the body. The respiratory tract is divided into two sections at the level of the vocal cords; the upper and lower respiratory tract.

The lungs are most often considered as part of the lower respiratory tract, but are sometimes described as a separate entity. They contain the respiratory bronchiolesalveolar ductsalveolar sacs and alveoli

This article will discuss the anatomy and function of the respiratory system.

Upper respiratory tractNasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx above the vocal cords
Lower respiratory airwaysLarynx below the vocal cords, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and lungs
FunctionsUpper respiratory tract: conduction, filtration, humidification and warming of inhaled air
Lower respiratory tract: conduction and gas exchange

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