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# The Dielectric of a Capacitor

As well as the overall size of the conductive plates and their distance or spacing apart from each other, another factor which affects the overall capacitance of the device is the type of dielectric material being used. In other words the “Permittivity” (ε) of the dielectric.

The conductive plates of a capacitor are generally made of a metal foil or a metal film allowing for the flow of electrons and charge, but the dielectric material used is always an insulator. The various insulating materials used as the dielectric in a capacitor differ in their ability to block or pass an electrical charge.

This dielectric material can be made from a number of insulating materials or combinations of these materials with the most common types used being: air, paper, polyester, polypropylene, Mylar, ceramic, glass, oil, or a variety of other materials.

The factor by which the dielectric material, or insulator, increases the capacitance of the capacitor compared to air is known as the Dielectric Constantk and a dielectric material with a high dielectric constant is a better insulator than a dielectric material with a lower dielectric constant. Dielectric constant is a dimensionless quantity since it is relative to free space.

The actual permittivity or “complex permittivity” of the dielectric material between the plates is then the product of the permittivity of free space (εo) and the relative permittivity (εr) of the material being used as the dielectric and is given as:

### Complex Permittivity

In other words, if we take the permittivity of free space, εo as our base level and make it equal to one, when the vacuum of free space is replaced by some other type of insulating material, their permittivity of its dielectric is referenced to the base dielectric of free space giving a multiplication factor known as “relative permittivity”, εr. So the value of the complex permittivity, ε will always be equal to the relative permittivity times one.

Typical units of dielectric permittivity, ε or dielectric constant for common materials are: Pure Vacuum = 1.0000, Air = 1.0006, Paper = 2.5 to 3.5, Glass = 3 to 10, Mica = 5 to 7, Wood = 3 to 8 and Metal Oxide Powders = 6 to 20 etc. This then gives us a final equation for the capacitance of a capacitor as:

One method used to increase the overall capacitance of a capacitor while keeping its size small is to “interleave” more plates together within a single capacitor body. Instead of just one set of parallel plates, a capacitor can have many individual plates connected together thereby increasing the surface area, A of the plates.

For a standard parallel plate capacitor as shown above, the capacitor has two plates, labelled A and B. Therefore as the number of capacitor plates is two, we can say that n = 2, where “n” represents the number of plates.

Then our equation above for a single parallel plate capacitor should really be:

However, the capacitor may have two parallel plates but only one side of each plate is in contact with the dielectric in the middle as the other side of each plate forms the outside of the capacitor. If we take the two halves of the plates and join them together we effectively only have “one” whole plate in contact with the dielectric.

As for a single parallel plate capacitor, n – 1 = 2 – 1 which equals 1 as C = (εor x 1 x A)/d is exactly the same as saying: C = (εor*A)/d which is the standard equation above.

Now suppose we have a capacitor made up of 9 interleaved plates, then n = 9 as shown.